Swidsinski S, Moll W MSwidsinski A

Bakterial Vaginosis – Vaginal Polymikrobial Biofilms und Dysbiosis

Dtsch Arztebl Int 2023; 120: 347-54; doi: 10.3238/arztebl.m2023.0090


Swidsinski S, Moll W MSwidsinski A

Bakterielle Vaginose – vaginale polymikrobielle Biofilme und Dysbiosen

Dtsch Arztebl Int 2023; 120: 347-54; doi: 10.3238/arztebl.m2023.0090


Swidsinski S, Hagedorn T, Swidsinski A, Bode KA, Moll WM

Sexuell übertragbare Infektionen - Neue und Neues.

Frauenarzt 2023 Feb; 64.Jahrgang 2023


Swidsinski A, Guschin A, Corsini L, Podpera Tisakova L Swidsinski S, Sobel JD, Dörffel Y

Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Microbiota in Bacterial Vaginosis Using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization.

Pathogens  2022 11(4),456; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11040456


Swidsinski A, Loening-Baucke V, Swidsinski S, Sobel JD, Dörffel Y, Gushin A

Clue Cells and Pseudo Clue Cells in Different Morphotypes of Bacterial Vaginosis.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 May 27;12:905739. DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2022.905739


Landlinger C, Tisakova L, Oberbauer V, Schwebs T, Agnieszka Latka, Van Simaey L, Vaneechoutte M, Guschin A, Swidsinski S, Swidsinski A, Corsini L

Engineered phage Endolysin Eliminates Gardnerella Biofilm without Damaging Beneficial Bacteria in Bacterial Vaginosis EX Vivo

Pathogens  2021 10(1),54; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10010054


Swidsinski A, Sobel J,


Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Aug;221(2):169-170. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2019.04.018. Epub 2019 Apr 25.


Swidsinski A, Sobel J,


Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Jul 5. pii: S0002-9378(19)30892-0. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2019.07.008.


Verstraelen H, Swidsinski A.

The biofilm in bacterial vaginosis: implications for epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment: 2018 update.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Feb;32(1):38-42. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0000000000000516. PMID: 30507674


Swidsinski A, Guschin A, Tang Q, Dörffel Y, Verstraelen H, Tertychnyy A, Khayrullina G, Luo X, Sobel JD, Jiang X.

Vulvovaginal candidiasis: histologic lesions are primarily polymicrobial and invasive and do not contain biofilms.

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Jan;220(1):91.e1-91.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2018.10.023. Epub 2018 Oct 25. PMID:30595144


Swidsinski A.

Dickdarm-Mikrobiom und S. boulardii.

Medical Tribune Austria 2018 Nr.51-52 (4) 19. Dezember 2018


Graneß N, Swidsinski A, Krüger M, Ehlers K, Corinna Arnold, Gerald F. Schusser

Analysis of the fecal microbiome in horses in association with antibiotic and prebiotic treatment.

BERL MUNCH TIERARZTL 2018 Online first: 13.02.2018, http://vetline.de/facharchiv/158/3222, DOI: 10.2376/0005-9366-17051


Cerca N, Vaneechoutte M, Guschin A, Swidsinski A.

Polymicrobial infections and biofilms in women's health: Gahro Expert Group Meeting Report 2017.

Res Microbiol. 2017 Jul 14. pii: S0923-2508(17)30129-8. doi: 10.1016/j.resmic.2017.07.002. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available. PMID: 28716397


Swidsinski A, Dörffel Y, Loening-Baucke V, Gille C, Göktas Ö, Reißhauer A, Neuhaus J, Weylandt KH, Guschin A, Bock M.

Reduced Mass and Diversity of the Colonic Microbiome in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Their Improvement with Ketogenic Diet.

Front Microbiol. 2017 Jun 28;8:1141. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01141. eCollection 2017. PMID: 28702003


Stremmel W, Staffer S, Schneider MJ, Gan-Schreier H, Wannhoff A, Stuhrmann N, Gauss A, Wolburg H, Mahringer A, Swidsinski A, Efferth T.

Genetic mouse models with intestinal-specific tight junction deletion resemble an ulcerative colitis phenotype.

J Crohns Colitis. 2017 May 27. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjx075. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 28575164


Swidsinski A, Dörffel Y, Loening-Baucke V, Gille C, Reißhauer A, Göktas O, Krüger M, Neuhaus J, Schrödl W.

Impact of humic acids on the colonic microbiome in healthy volunteers.

World J Gastroenterol. 2017 Feb 7;23(5):885-890. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v23.i5.885. PMID: 28223733


Alexander Swidsinski and Vera Loening-Baucke

Evaluation of Polymicrobial Involvement Using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) in Clinical Practice

Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) - Application GuideEdited by T. Liehr2017, pp 606Eur 114.39, ISBN: 978-3-662-52957-7Springer-VerlagBerlin, Germany.


Verstraelen H, Swidsinski A.

Response to the letter to the editor.

Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2016 Nov;294(5):1107-1108. PMID:  27637584


Moschen AR, Gerner RR, Wang J, Klepsch V, Adolph TE, Reider SJ, Hackl H, Pfister A, Schilling J, Moser PL, Kempster SL, Swidsinski A, Orth Höller D, Weiss G, Baines JF, et al. Lipocalin 2 Protects from Inflammation and Tumorigenesis Associated with Gut Microbiota Alterations.

Cell Host Microbe 2016 Apr 13;19(4):455-69. PMID: 27078067


Swidsinski A, Loening-Baucke V, Schulz S, Manowsky J, Verstraelen H, Swidsinski S.

Functional anatomy of the colonic bioreactor: Impact of antibiotics and Saccharomyces boulardii on bacterial composition in human fecal cylinders. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2016 Feb;39(1):67-75. doi: 10.1016/j.syapm.2015.11.002. Epub 2015 Dec 14. PMID:26723852


Margret I Moré, Alexander Swidsinski

Saccharomyces boulardii unterstützt die Regenerierung der intestinalen Mikrobiota bei diarrhoeischen und antibiotischen Dysbiosen.

MMW-Fortschritte der Medizin 2015


Margret I Moré, Alexander Swidsinski

Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 supports regeneration of the intestinal microbiota after diarrheic dysbiosis – a review.

Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology 2015 Aug; 8:237-255.


Swidsinski A, Loening-Baucke V, Swidsinski S, Verstraelen H.

Polymicrobial Gardnerella biofilm resists repeated intravaginal antiseptic treatment in a subset of women with bacterial

vaginosis: a preliminary report. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2015 Mar 291(3):605-9. doi: 10.1007/s00404-014-3484-1. Epub 2014 Sep 23. PMID: 25245669


Schierack P, Rödiger S, Kolenda R, Hiemann R, Berger E, Grzymajlo K, Swidsinski A, Juretzek T, Meissner D, Mydlak K, Reinhold D, Nolan LK, Roggenbuck D.

Species-specific and pathotype-specific binding of bacteria to zymogen granule membrane glycoprotein 2 (GP2).

Gut. 2015 Mar;64(3):517-9. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2014-307854. Epub 2014 Jul 29. PMID: 25073658


Valentini L, Ramminger S, Haas V, Postrach E, Werich M, Fischer A, Koller M, Swidsinski A, Bereswill S, Lochs H, Schulzke JD.

Small intestinal permeability in older adults.

Physiol Rep. 2014 Apr 22;2(4):e00281. doi: 10.14814/phy2.281. PMID: 24771689


Sandek A, Swidsinski A, Schroedl W, Watson A, Valentova M, Herrmann R, Scherbakov N, Cramer L, Rauchhaus M, Grosse-Herrenthey A, Krueger M, et al.

Intestinal blood flow in patients with chronic heart failure: a link with bacterial growth, gastrointestinal symptoms, and cachexia.

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Sep 16;64(11):1092-102. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.06.1179. PMID: 25212642


Swidsinski A, Loening-Baucke V, Mendling W, Dörffel Y, Schilling J, Halwani Z, Jiang XF, Verstraelen H, Swidsinski S.

Infection through Structured Polymicrobial Gardnerella biofilms (StPM-GB).

Histol Histopathol 2013;Dec 11. [Epub ahead of print]


Swidsinski A, Verstraelen H, Loening-Baucke V, Swidsinski S, Mendling W, Halwani Z.

Presence of a polymicrobial endometrial biofilm in patient with bacterial vaginosis.

PLoS One 2013;8(1)


Verstraelen H, Swidsinski A.

The biofilm in bacterial vaginosis: implications for epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2013 Feb;26(1):86-89


Swidsinski A, Loening-Baucke V, Krüger M, Kirsch S.

Central Nervous System and the Colonic Bioreactor: Analysis of Colonic Microbiota in Patients with Stroke Unravels Unknown

Mechanisms of the Host Defense after Brain Injury.

Intest Res 2012;10(4):332-342


Swidsinski A, Dörffel Y, Loening-Baucke V, Tertychnyy A, Biche-Ool S, Stonogin S, Guo Y, Sun ND.

Mucosal Invasion by Fusobacteria is a Common Feature of Acute Appendicitis in Germany, Russia, and China.

Saudi J Gastroenterol 2012 Jan;18(1):55-8. PubMed PMID: 22249094


Femia AP, Swidsinski A, Dolora P, Salvatori M, Amedei A, Caderni G.

Mucin Depleted Foci, Colonic Preneoplastic Lesions Lacking Muc2, Show Up-Regulation of Tlr2 but Not Bacterial Infiltration.

PLoS One. 2012;7(1):e29918. Epub 2012 Jan 5  PubMed PMID: 22242189


Alexander Swidsinski A, Vera Loening-Baucke V, Mendling W, Swidsinski S.

Positive effects of local therapy with a vaginal lactic acid gel on dysuria and E.coli bacteriuria question our current views on recurrent cystitis.        Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012 Jan 5. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 22218825


Dörffel Y, Swidsinski A, Loening-Baucke V, Wiedenmann B, Marianne Pavel M.

Common Biostructure of the Colonic Microbiota in Neuroendocrine Tumors and Crohn’s Disease and the Effect of Therapy.

Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011 Nov 23. doi: 10.1002/ibd.21923. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 22113988


Mengel H, Kruger M, Kruger M U,Westphal B, Swidsinski A, Schwarz S, Mundt HC, Dittmar K, Daugschies A.

Necrotic enteritis due to simultaneous infection with Isospora suis and clostridia in newborn piglets and its prevention by early

treatment with toltrazuril. Parasitol Res 2011 Oct 4. [Epub ahead of print]  PubMed PMID: 21968954


Swidsinski A, Doerffel Y, Loening-Baucke V, Swidsinski S, Verstraelen H, Vaneechoutte M, Lemm V, Schilling J, Mendling W.

Gardnerella biofilm involves females and males and is transmitted sexually.

Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2010 ;70(4):256-63. Epub 2010 Oct 16. PubMed PMID: 21051845.


Swidsinski A, Dörffel Y, Loening-Baucke V, Schilling J, Mendling W.

Response of Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm to 5 days of moxifloxacin treatment.

FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2010 Sep 27.  doi: 10.1111/j.1574-695X.2010.00743.x. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 20955467.


Swidsinski A, Loening-Baucke V, Kirsch S, Doerffel Y.

[Functional biostructureof colonic microbiota (central fermenting area, germinal stock area and separating

mucus layer) in healthy subjects and patients with diarrhea treated with Saccharomyces boulardii].

Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2010 Sep;34 Suppl 1:S79-92. French. PubMed PMID: 20889010.


Swidsinski A, Dörffel Y, Loening-Baucke V, Mendling W, Schilling J, Patterson JL, Verstraelen H.

Dissimilarity in the occurrence of  Bifidobacteriaceae in vaginal and perianal microbiota in women with bacterial vaginosis.

Anaerobe. 2010 Oct;16(5):478-82. Epub 2010 Jul 8. PubMed PMID: 20620215.


Krüger M, Schroedl W, Krüger M, Schwarz S, Mengel H, Daugschies A, Swidsisnki A, Mundt HC, Westphahl B.

Nekrotische Enteritis bei Saugferkeln durch Interaktion von Isospora suis und Clostridium perfringens

Der Praktische Tierarzt 91, Heft 9, 774-84 ( 2010 )


Swidsinski A, Dörffel Y, Loening-Baucke V, Mendling W, Verstraelen H, DieterleS, Schilling J.

Desquamated epithelial cells covered with a polymicrobial biofilm typical for bacterial vaginosis are present in randomly selected cryopreserved donor semen. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2010 Aug;59(3):399-404. Epub 2010 Apr 20. PubMed PMID: 20497224.


Swidsinski A, Loening-Baucke V, Herber A..

Mucosal flora in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis - an overview. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009 Dec;60 Suppl 6:61-71.PubMed PMID: 20224153.


Swidsinski A, Dörffel Y, Loening-Baucke V, Theissig F, Rückert JC, Ismail M, Rau WA, Gaschler D, Weizenegger M, Kühn S, Schilling J, Dörffel WV.

Acute appendicitis is characterised by local invasion with Fusobacterium nucleatum/necrophorum.

Gut. 2010 May 4. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 19926616.


Swidsinski A, Ung V, Sydora BC, Loening-Baucke V, Doerffel Y, Verstraelen H, Fedorak RN.

Bacterial overgrowth and inflammation of small intestine after carboxymethylcellulose ingestion in genetically susceptible mice.

Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2009 Mar;15(3):359-64. PubMed PMID: 18844217.


Swidsinski A, Loening-Baucke V, Verstraelen H, Osowska S, Doerffel Y.

Biostructure of fecal microbiota in healthy subjects and patients with chronic idiopathic diarrhea.

Gastroenterology. 2008 Aug;135(2):568-79. Epub 2008 Apr 18. PubMed PMID: 18570896.


Döerffel Y, Pavel M, Loening-Baucke V, Swidsinski A..

Common biostructure of the fecal flora in celiac disease, Crohn's disease, and carcinoid tumors.

Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008 Nov;14(11):1613-4. PubMed PMID: 18521905.


A. Swidsinski, Y. Dörffel, V. Loening-Baucke, S. Swidsinski, A. G. Schmidt, H. Scherer, C. Bessler, Ö. Göktas.

Biomorphologie der Infektionsherde in rezidivierenden Mandelentzündungen. Biomorphology of the Bacterial Invasion in Chronic Pharyngotonsillitis. Laryngo-Rhino-Otol 2008; 87: 776–782


Loening-Baucke V, Swidsinski A.

Observational study of children with aerophagia. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2008 Sep;47(7):664-9. Epub 2008 Apr 29. PubMed PMID: 18445758.


Swidsinski A, Loening-Baucke V, Bengmark S, Scholze J, Doerffel Y.

Bacterial  biofilm suppression with antibiotics for ulcerative and indeterminate colitis: consequences of aggressive treatment.

Arch Med Res. 2008 Feb;39(2):198-204. Epub 2007 Oct 31. PubMed PMID: 18164963.


Swidsinski A, Loening-Baucke V, Vaneechoutte M, Doerffel Y.

Active Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis can be specifically diagnosed and monitored based on the biostructure of the fecal flora.

Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008 Feb;14(2):147-61. PubMed PMID: 18050295.


Loening-Baucke V, Swidsinski A.

Constipation as cause of acute abdominal pain in children. J Pediatr. 2007 Dec;151(6):666-9. Epub 2007 Jul 30. PubMed PMID: 18035149.


Swidsinski A, Mendling W, Loening-Baucke V, Swidsinski S, Dörffel Y, Scholze  J, Lochs H, Verstraelen H.

An adherent Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm persists on the vaginal epithelium after standard therapy  with oral metronidazole.

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jan;198(1):97.e1-6. Epub 2007 Nov 19. PubMed PMID: 18005928.


Sandek A, Bauditz J, Swidsinski A, Buhner S, Weber-Eibel J, von Haehling S, Schroedl W, Karhausen T, Doehner W, Rauchhaus M, Poole-Wilson P, Volk HD, Lochs H, Anker SD.

Altered intestinal function in patients with chronic heart failure.

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007 Oct 16;50(16):1561-9. Epub 2007 Oct 1. PubMed PMID: 17936155.


Eaves-Pyles T, Allen CA, Taormina, Swidsinski A, Tutt CB, Jezek GE, Islas-Islas M, Torres AG.

Escherichia coli isolated from a Crohn's disease patient adheres, invades, and induces inflammatory responses in polarized intestinal epithelial cells. Int J Med Microbiol. 2008 Jul;298(5-6):397-409. Epub 2007 Sep 27. PubMed PMID: 17900983.


Syrbe U, Moebes A, Scholze J, Swidsinski A, Dörffel Y.

Effects of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist elmisartan on monocyte adhesion and activation in patients with

essential hypertension. Hypertens Res. 2007 Jun;30(6):521-8. PubMed PMID: 17664855.


Swidsinski A, Sydora BC, Doerffel Y, Loening-Baucke V, Vaneechoutte M, Lupicki M, Scholze J, Lochs H, Dieleman LA.

Viscosity gradient within the mucus layer determines the mucosal barrier function and the spatial organization

of the intestinal microbiota. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2007 Aug;13(8):963-70. PubMed PMID: 17455202.


Swidsinski A, Loening-Baucke V, Bengmark S, Lochs H, Dörffel Y.

Azathioprine  and mesalazine-induced effects on the mucosal flora in patients with IBD colitis.

Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2007 Jan;13(1):51-6. PubMed PMID: 17206639.


Swidsinski A..

Standards for  bacterial identification by fluorescence In situ hybridization within eukaryotic  tissue using ribosomal rRNA-based

probes. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006 Aug;12(8):824-6; author reply 826-7. PubMed PMID: 16917237.


Swidsinski A, Loening-Baucke V, Theissig F, Engelhardt H, Bengmark S, Koch S, Lochs H, Dörffel Y.

Comparative study of the intestinal mucus barrier in normal and inflamed colon.

Gut. 2007 Mar;56(3):343-50. Epub 2006 Aug 14. PubMed PMID: 16908512; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1856798.


Canny G, Swidsinski A, McCormick BA.

Interactions of intestinal epithelial cells with bacteria and immune cells: methods to characterize microflora and functional

consequences. Methods Mol Biol. 2006;341:17-35. Review. PubMed PMID: 16799186.


Swidsinski A, Göktas O, Bessler C, Loening-Baucke V, Hale LP, Andree H, Weizenegger M, Hölzl M, Scherer H, Lochs H.

Spatial organisation of microbiota  in quiescent adenoiditis and tonsillitis.

J Clin Pathol. 2007 Mar;60(3):253-60. Epub 2006 May 12. PubMed PMID: 16698947; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1860565.


Hale LP, Swidsinski A, Mendling W.

Bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jan 12;354(2):202-3; author reply 202-3. PubMed PMID: 16407518.


Hale LP, Gottfried MR, Swidsinski A.

Piroxicam treatment of IL-10-deficient mice enhances colonic epithelial apoptosis and mucosal exposure to intestinal bacteria.

Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2005 Dec;11(12):1060-9. PubMed PMID: 16306768.


Swidsinski A, Mendling W, Loening-Baucke V, Ladhoff A, Swidsinski S, Hale LP, Lochs H.

Adherent biofilms in bacterial vaginosis. Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Nov;106(5 Pt 1):1013-23. PubMed PMID: 16260520.


Swidsinski A, Weber J, Loening-Baucke V, Hale LP, Lochs H.

Spatial organization and composition of the mucosal flora in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Jul;43(7):3380-9. PubMed PMID: 16000463; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1169142.


Swidsinski A, Loening-Baucke V, Lochs H, Hale LP.

Spatial organization of bacterial flora in normal and inflamed intestine: a fluorescence in situ hybridization study in mice.

World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Feb 28;11(8):1131-40. PubMed PMID: 15754393.


Swidsinski A, Schlien P, Pernthaler A, Gottschalk U, Bärlehner E, Decker G, Swidsinski S, Strassburg J, Loening-Baucke V, Hoffmann U, Seehofer D, Hale LP, Lochs H.

Bacterial biofilm within diseased pancreatic and biliary tracts. Gut. 2005 Mar;54(3):388-95. PubMed PMID: 15710988; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1774423.


Darfeuille-Michaud A, Boudeau J, Bulois P, Neut C, Glasser AL, Barnich N, Bringer MA, Swidsinski A, Beaugerie L, Colombel JF.

High prevalence of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli associated with ileal mucosa in Crohn's disease.

Gastroenterology. 2004 Aug;127(2):412-21. PubMed PMID: 15300573.


Swidsinski A, Ladhoff A, Pernthaler A, Swidsinski S, Loening-Baucke V, Ortner M, Weber J, Hoffmann U, Schreiber S, Dietel M, Lochs H.

Mucosal flora in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology. 2002 Jan;122(1):44-54. PubMed PMID: 11781279.


Swidsinski A, Lee SP.

The role of bacteria in gallstone pathogenesis. Front Biosci. 2001 Oct 1;6:E93-103. Review. PubMed PMID: 11578976.


Swidsinski A, Khilkin M, Kerjaschki D, Schreiber S, Ortner M, Weber J, Lochs  H.

Association between intraepithelial Escherichia coli and colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology. 1998 Aug;115(2):281-6. PubMed PMID: 9679033.


Swidsinski A, Khilkin M, Pahlig H, Swidsinski S, Priem F.

Time dependent changes in the concentration and type of bacterial sequences found in cholesterol gallstones.

Hepatology. 1998 Mar;27(3):662-5. PubMed PMID: 9500691.


Swidsinski A, Ludwig W, Pahlig H, Priem F.

Molecular genetic evidence of bacterial colonization of cholesterol gallstones.

Gastroenterology. 1995 Mar;108(3):860-4. PubMed PMID: 7875489.


Swidsinski A, Swidsinski S.

[Artificial antigens for synthetic vaccines]. Z Arztl Fortbild (Jena). 1988;82(1):7-14. Review. German. PubMed PMID: 3285604.


Swidsinski A.

[Bacterial colonization of gallstones]. Z Arztl Fortbild (Jena). 1992 Apr 27;86(7-8):363-6. German. PubMed PMID: 1615716.


Kaden J, Grunow R, Groth J, Scholz D, Volk D, Swidsinski A, Janisch W, May G.

[Fc IgG carrying T lymphocytes in healthy adults and patients following kidney transplantation].

Z Urol Nephrol. 1984 Dec;77(12):683-93. German. PubMed PMID: 6241397.











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